KPMI sets the following targets:
- Basic and applied research in public health and prevention of diseases, incl. implementation of population researches, screening and intervention researches, development of economically sound health care models;
- Basic and applied research in clinical medicine, incl. oncology, microbial and infectious diseases (sepsis, tuberculosis, etc.), internal medicine and surgical pathology, laboratory medicine and visual diagnostics, as well as other natural sciences;
- Promoting the growth of young scientists in the Institute's research profiling sectors;
- Acquiring new knowledge and using it in the development of society and the economy in accordance with the priorities set by the University of Latvia in the field of natural and medical sciences.